India is one of the fastest growing countries in the world and industrialization is the major cause of development. Due to the large scale industrialization, emission of harmful particles and gases have increased leading to increase in pollution. Pollution is not only harmful to human being but also causes an adverse effect on birds and animals.
Pollution in India with the passage of time is increasing rapidly and some of the reasons are emission of smoke from vehicles, burning of biomass and fuels, emission of harmful gases from industries and the emission of greenhouse gases. As a result of increase in pollution, the quality of air in the country has degraded resulting in numerous diseases.
Particulate Matter (PM) is term used for solid or liquid particles present in air that impacts adversely on human health and environment. PM is a unit of measurement of air pollution and higher the value of PM denotes the higher pollution. PM 2.5 is a particulate matter with particles with a size of 2.5 micrometres or less. Among all cities in India, Delhi is the most polluted city with PM 2.5 concentration of 153 µg/m³ and its air quality is degrading swiftly. This post describes about the Top 10 most Polluted Cities in India:
10th position on this list is occupied by Ludhiana, the industrial capital of Punjab. Ludhiana is a centre of many small scale industries, which produces machine parts, garments, home appliances, etc. The waste produced by numerous small scale industries is the main cause of pollution in the city.
PM 2.5 (µg/m³): 91
Amritsar is another city of Punjab in this list of most polluted cities in India with PM 2.5 concentration of 92 micrograms per cubic metre. The presence of a large number of industries and vehicular congestion are the main causes of pollution in the city.
PM 2.5 (µg/m³): 92
Kanpur, also known as Leather City of the World has occupied the 8th place in this list. With PM 2.5 concentration of 93 µg/m3, Kanpur is the eighth most polluted city in India. The waste of leather industries is the primary cause of pollution in the city.
PM 2.5 (ug/m³): 93
Another city of Uttar Pradesh, Firozabad has made into this list and present on 7th position with PM 2.5 concentration of 96 µg/m³. Firozabad is a centre of glass industries and known for glass industries across the country. The industrial waste of glass industries is the major reason of pollution in the city.
PM 2.5 (µg/m³): 96
The City of Nawabs, Lucknow is the sixth most polluted city in India with PM 2.5 concentration of 96 micrograms per cubic metre. Emission of toxic gases from industries, vehicular emission and road dust are the causes of pollution in Lucknow.
PM 2.5 (µg/m³): 96
With PM 2.5 concentration of 100 micrograms per cubic metre, Ahmedabad is ranked 5th in the list of top 10 most polluted cities in India. Ahmedabad is the hub of textile industries and a leading supplier of denim in the country. These textile industries generate industrial waste in a large amount, which is one of the reasons of pollution in the city.
Also, Ahmedabad has a large number of vehicles, which gives out harmful fuel emission, causing air pollution. And being a populated city, the problem of traffic congestion is common, which further add to pollution.
PM 2.5 (µg/m³): 100
Raipur, the capital city of Chhattisgarh is next on this list with PM 2.5 concentration of 134 micrograms per cubic metre. Raipur is a swiftly developing city and an emerging commercial centre of the country.
The growth and development of the city are accompanied with industrialization and infrastructural development. The high scale rise in industrialization has affected the environment adversely in the form of pollution.
Vehicular Emission, Industrial Waste and Large Scale Infrastructural Development are the main reasons of pollution in the city.
PM 2.5 (µg/m³): 134
With PM 2.5 of 144 micrograms per cubic metre, Gwalior is next on this list. Vehicular Emission and Reduction in Green Cover are the main reasons for the increase in pollution in Gwalior.
PM 2.5 (µg/m³): 144
Patna is another most polluted city and placed at 2nd in the list of top 10 most polluted cities in India. Capital city of Bihar, Patna is also among the most polluted cities in the world with PM 2.5 concentration of 149 micrograms per cubic metre.
Industrialization, Vehicular Emissions and Construction are the main reasons for pollution in Patna. Also, the presence of air pollutants causes formation of dense smog in Patna during winter season leading to disturbance in rail and air traffic.
PM 2.5 (µg/m³): 149
Delhi, the industrial hub of North India is the most polluted city in India with PM 2.5 concentration of 153 micrograms per cubic metres.
Industries and Vehicular Traffic are the main reasons of pollution in Delhi and degrades the quality of air. Apart from being the most polluted city of the country, Delhi is also one of the most polluted cities in the world.
Delhi is not only leads in concentration of Particulate Matter with a size of 2.5 micrometres i.e. PM 2.5 but also stands on the first spot among all cities in concentration of PM 10, which is 286 micrograms per cubic metre. Among all causes of pollution, Road Dust contributes the maximum with about 50% of total particulate matter.
PM 2.5 (ug/m³): 153